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This page lists all scientific and technological advancements in the Principia Moderni III map game.


Timeline of Inventions, Discoveries, and Important EventsEdit

XV CenturyEdit

  • 14?? - The Pskov Academy of Natural Philosophy (or Simply the Pskov Academy) is founded
  • 14?? - The Circulatory System is rediscovered in Europe thanks to Pskov translating Arabian research
  • 14?? - Arabian Optics brought to Europe thanks to translations done by the Pskov Academy
  • 1467 - Pskov Academy Merges into Pskov University and adopts a series of Reforms
  • Late 15th Century - Heliocentrism becomes accepted by many European Scholars.
  • 1450s - de Patra - Rifling
  • 1460s - de Patra - Theory of Hydrodynamics

XVI CenturyEdit

  • 1594 - Spanish: Theory of continental drift proposed.
  • 1500s - Paracelsus: Founding of Toxicology.

XVII CenturyEdit

  • 1612 - Pskov: Moons of Jupiter, OTL Galileo's Astronomical Observations.
  • 1620 - Gentili: Law of Falling Bodies
  • 162? - Dutch: Mercury thermostat.
  • 1624 - Dutch: Law of refraction.
  • 1626 - Val Jean: Method for blood transfusion.
  • 1629 - de Coño: Primitive steam turbine.
  • 1634 - Von Einzberg: Microscope.
  • 1635 - Bayer: Bayer's Law of ideal gas.
  • 1636 - Charter granted by Holy Roman Emperor Wolfgang I to the Imperial Society.
  • 1638 - Dreschner: Coordinate System
  • 1639 - von Guericke: Vacuum pump.
  • 1640 - Hurrle: Study of oscillating system and design of pendulum clocks.
  • 1643 - Torricelli: Mercury Barometer.
  • 1644 - Gentili: Basic principle of relativity.
  • 1646 - Lermontov: Discovery of the Cell
  • 1647 - Pskov University's "Journal of Discoveries" is hijacked by the Pskov Academy and becomes the world's first Peer-Review scientific journal
  • 1650- Pascal Rulings: Slide rule.
  • 1651 - Hurrle: Probability theory. 
  • 1651 - Gentili, Rasputin: Infinitesimal calculus
  • 1660s- Britannia - Famous local clocksmith family, the MacBrughs, invents the Cuckoo Clock in the Northern Highlands, Scotland.
  • 1660s- Britannia - James Mattis II invents a refracting telescope, believed to be the first.
  • 1660s-1670s - Romans: Speed of Light
  • 1663 - Gentili: Laws of motion.
  • 1667 - Kirilov: Observation of first micro-organisms
  • 1675- Dutch: Bacteria
  • 1680s- Mongols - The Paper mill
  • 1680s - Pskov (unknown) - Table Glass
  • 1690s - Russia (Unknown) - Glass holder
  • 1697 - Lyubimova - Metal Lathe Compound Slide 

XVIII CenturyEdit

  • 1709 - Tserclaes - Seed Drill.
  • 1713 - Landman - Flying Shuttle.
  • 1746 - Petri Endika (Navarre) - Capacitor/Condenser

XIX CenturyEdit

  • 1802 - Metric System.

Future InventionsEdit

This section is for listing a rough outline of inventions or discoveries you have planned in the next fifty years, so that they can be discussed if needed and organized. Please refrain from claiming all inventors or scientists in a short period, unless you have built a foundation or plausible reason for them to create their inventions.

Scientific SocietiesEdit

Pskov Academy of Natural PhilosophyEdit

Founded in the First half of the XV century by Pskovian Scholars wishing to pursue the knowledge brought from Arabia reciting the Knowledge of the Islamic Golden age, the Pskov Academy is one of the first "Scientific" societies in the world. It was greatly Reformed in 1467 during the founding of the Pskov University, setting up governing principles valuing the acknowledgement of your own error and seeking truth no matter the preconceptions, and valued the invalidation of theories just as much as they valued the validation of new or existing ones, as well as proving or disproving hypotheses using observable and repeatable evidence. The Principle that you must question all writings, whether it be ancient philosophers, or new students, and only make decisions and arguments based on evidence and experimentation (pitki) is more than accepted in a society where dissent is not just tolerated but encouraged, as the people have the power to remove their prince. Their Motto is Изследовайте Далие [Izsledovayte Dalie] (Inquire Further). More to add later.

In 1467 the Academy of Pskov espouses five governing principles based somewhat on the works and lectures of Arabian Scholars before them:

  1. All Mankind is fallible, only what can be observed repeatedly can be taken for fact.
  2. As All Mankind is Fallible, even your own ideas may be riddled with falsehood.
  3. Even if you yourself may be at fault, it is possible that a third unlikely answer may exist, it is your duty to inquire further.
  4. Always Inquire further, Always ask: why? For what reason?
  5. Discoveries should never be secret, this prevents further inquiry.

Interpreting these Principles, the Academy established rules for publication, that, and one of the most important rules was "review before publication", where one man or student must take the side of your observations and conclusions, and try and prove them himself, whereas a second tries to disprove you completely and maintain the status quo, and a third inquires a different path. The work is then taken before a jury of peers, and the three men argue your case, and if a single man on the jury seconds your case, your work can be published, if another theory gets precedence, you inquire further. This creates a primitive peer-review minimum requirement in order to publish. These requirements were strengthened and made more rigorous as the years went by.

University of ConstantinopleEdit

While lacking in a separate scientific society compared to other institutions of higher education in Europe, the University of Constantinople is one of the major universities in Europe and has been for much of its history. Noticeably destitute for much of the early 1400s, the University made a remarkable comeback with a reversal of fortunes for the Roman Empire and the introduction of Carlo de Patra, who re-invigorated the ailing institution. 

Imperial SocietyEdit

The Imperial Society of Vienna for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Imperial Society, is a learned society for science, and is one of Europe's most important scientific communities. Founded in November 1636, it was granted a Royal Charter by Holy Roman Emperor Wolfgang I as the "Imperial Society of Vienna". Since its inception the organization has attracted some of Europe's most important and knowledgeable scientists and mathematicians.

University of ViennaEdit

The University of Vienna (German: Universität Wien) is a public university located in Vienna, Austria. Founded in 1365 by Duke Rudolph IV, the university is the oldest university in the German-speaking world. With its long and rich history, the University of Vienna has developed into one of the biggest universities in Europe, and also one of the most renowned, responsible for educating a number of renown scientists and scholars, as well as promoting the research of a number of sciences. The University of Vienna would later give rise to the Imperial Society, one of Europe's most influential scientific institutions.

University of BrusselsEdit

PeopleEdit

-- -- This module will implement Template loop detected: Template:Navbox --

local p = {}

local HtmlBuilder = require('Module:HtmlBuilder') local navbar = require('Module:Navbar')._navbar local getArgs -- lazily initialized

local args local tableRowAdded = false local border local listnums = {}

local function trim(s)

   return (mw.ustring.gsub(s, "^%s*(.-)%s*$", "%1"))

end

local function addNewline(s)

   if s:match('^[*:;#]') or s:match('^{|') then
       return '\n' .. s ..'\n'
   else
       return s
   end

end

local function addTableRow(tbl)

   -- If any other rows have already been added, then we add a 2px gutter row.
   if tableRowAdded then
       tbl
           .tag('tr')
               .css('height', '2px')
               .tag('td')
               	.attr('colspan',2)
   end

   tableRowAdded = true

   return tbl.tag('tr')

end

local function renderNavBar(titleCell)

   -- Depending on the presence of the navbar and/or show/hide link, we may need to add a spacer div on the left
   -- or right to keep the title centered.
   local spacerSide = nil

   if args.navbar == 'off' then
       -- No navbar, and client wants no spacer, i.e. wants the title to be shifted to the left. If there's
       -- also no show/hide link, then we need a spacer on the right to achieve the left shift.
       if args.state == 'plain' then spacerSide = 'right' end
   elseif args.navbar == 'plain' or (not args.name and mw.getCurrentFrame():getParent():getTitle() == 'Template:Navbox' and (border == 'subgroup' or border == 'child' or border == 'none')) then
       -- No navbar. Need a spacer on the left to balance out the width of the show/hide link.
       if args.state ~= 'plain' then spacerSide = 'left' end
   else
       -- Will render navbar (or error message). If there's no show/hide link, need a spacer on the right
       -- to balance out the width of the navbar.
       if args.state == 'plain' then spacerSide = 'right' end

       titleCell.wikitext(navbar{ 
           args.name, 
           mini = 1, 
           fontstyle = (args.basestyle or ) .. ';' .. (args.titlestyle or ) ..  ';background:none transparent;border:none;'
       })
   end

   -- Render the spacer div.
   if spacerSide then
       titleCell
           .tag('span')
               .css('float', spacerSide)
               .css('width', '6em')
               .wikitext(' ')
   end

end

-- -- Title row -- local function renderTitleRow(tbl)

   if not args.title then return end

   local titleRow = addTableRow(tbl)

   if args.titlegroup then
       titleRow
           .tag('th')
               .attr('scope', 'row')
               .addClass('navbox-group')
               .addClass(args.titlegroupclass)
               .cssText(args.basestyle)
               .cssText(args.groupstyle)
               .cssText(args.titlegroupstyle)
               .wikitext(args.titlegroup)
   end

   local titleCell = titleRow.tag('th').attr('scope', 'col')

   if args.titlegroup then
       titleCell
           .css('border-left', '2px solid #fdfdfd')
           .css('width', '100%')
   end

   local titleColspan = 2
   if args.imageleft then titleColspan = titleColspan + 1 end
   if args.image then titleColspan = titleColspan + 1 end
   if args.titlegroup then titleColspan = titleColspan - 1 end

   titleCell
       .cssText(args.basestyle)
       .cssText(args.titlestyle)
       .addClass('navbox-title')
       .attr('colspan', titleColspan)

   renderNavBar(titleCell)

   titleCell
        .tag('div')
            .addClass(args.titleclass)
            .css('font-size', '110%')
            .wikitext(addNewline(args.title))

end

-- -- Above/Below rows --

local function getAboveBelowColspan()

   local ret = 2
   if args.imageleft then ret = ret + 1 end
   if args.image then ret = ret + 1 end
   return ret

end

local function renderAboveRow(tbl)

   if not args.above then return end

   addTableRow(tbl)
       .tag('td')
           .addClass('navbox-abovebelow')
           .addClass(args.aboveclass)
           .cssText(args.basestyle)
           .cssText(args.abovestyle)
           .attr('colspan', getAboveBelowColspan())
           .tag('div')
               .wikitext(addNewline(args.above))

end

local function renderBelowRow(tbl)

   if not args.below then return end

   addTableRow(tbl)
       .tag('td')
           .addClass('navbox-abovebelow')
           .addClass(args.belowclass)
           .cssText(args.basestyle)
           .cssText(args.belowstyle)
           .attr('colspan', getAboveBelowColspan())
           .tag('div')
               .wikitext(addNewline(args.below))

end

-- -- List rows -- local function renderListRow(tbl, listnum)

   local row = addTableRow(tbl)

   if listnum == 1 and args.imageleft then
       row
           .tag('td')
               .addClass('navbox-image')
               .addClass(args.imageclass)
               .css('width', '0%')
               .css('padding', '0px 2px 0px 0px')
               .cssText(args.imageleftstyle)
               .attr('rowspan', 2 * #listnums - 1)
               .tag('div')
                   .wikitext(addNewline(args.imageleft))
   end

   if args['group' .. listnum] then
       local groupCell = row.tag('th')

       groupCell
              .attr('scope', 'row')
              .addClass('navbox-group')
              .addClass(args.groupclass)
              .cssText(args.basestyle)

       if args.groupwidth then
           groupCell.css('width', args.groupwidth)
       end

       groupCell
           .cssText(args.groupstyle)
           .cssText(args['group' .. listnum .. 'style'])
           .wikitext(args['group' .. listnum])
   end

   local listCell = row.tag('td')

   if args['group' .. listnum] then
       listCell
           .css('text-align', 'left')
           .css('border-left-width', '2px')
           .css('border-left-style', 'solid')
   else
       listCell.attr('colspan', 2)
   end

   if not args.groupwidth then 
       listCell.css('width', '100%')
   end

   local isOdd = (listnum % 2) == 1
   local rowstyle = args.evenstyle
   if isOdd then rowstyle = args.oddstyle end

   local evenOdd
   if args.evenodd == 'swap' then
       if isOdd then evenOdd = 'even' else evenOdd = 'odd' end
   else
       if isOdd then evenOdd = args.evenodd or 'odd' else evenOdd = args.evenodd or 'even' end
   end

   listCell
       .css('padding', '0px')
       .cssText(args.liststyle)
       .cssText(rowstyle)
       .cssText(args['list' .. listnum .. 'style'])
       .addClass('navbox-list')
       .addClass('navbox-' .. evenOdd)
       .addClass(args.listclass)
       .tag('div')
           .css('padding', (listnum == 1 and args.list1padding) or args.listpadding or '0em 0.25em')
           .wikitext(addNewline(args['list' .. listnum]))

   if listnum == 1 and args.image then
       row
           .tag('td')
               .addClass('navbox-image')
               .addClass(args.imageclass)
               .css('width', '0%')
               .css('padding', '0px 0px 0px 2px')
               .cssText(args.imagestyle)
               .attr('rowspan', 2 * #listnums - 1)
               .tag('div')
                   .wikitext(addNewline(args.image))
   end

end


-- -- Tracking categories --

local function needsHorizontalLists()

   if border == 'child' or border == 'subgroup'  or args.tracking == 'no' then return false end

   local listClasses = {'plainlist', 'hlist', 'hlist hnum', 'hlist hwrap', 'hlist vcard', 'vcard hlist', 'hlist vevent'}
   for i, cls in ipairs(listClasses) do
       if args.listclass == cls or args.bodyclass == cls then
           return false
       end
   end

   return true

end

local function hasBackgroundColors()

   return mw.ustring.match(args.titlestyle or ,'background') or mw.ustring.match(args.groupstyle or ,'background') or mw.ustring.match(args.basestyle or ,'background')

end

local function getTrackingCategories()

   local cats = {}
   if needsHorizontalLists() then table.insert(cats, 'Navigational boxes without horizontal lists') end
   if hasBackgroundColors() then table.insert(cats, 'Navboxes using background colours') end
   return cats

end

local function renderTrackingCategories(builder)

   local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle()
   if title.namespace ~= 10 then return end -- not in template space
   local subpage = title.subpageText
   if subpage == 'doc' or subpage == 'sandbox' or subpage == 'testcases' then return end

   for i, cat in ipairs(getTrackingCategories()) do
       builder.wikitext() 
   end

end

-- -- Main navbox tables -- local function renderMainTable()

   local tbl = HtmlBuilder.create('table')
       .attr('cellspacing', 0)
       .addClass('nowraplinks')
       .addClass(args.bodyclass)

   if args.title and (args.state ~= 'plain' and args.state ~= 'off') then
       tbl
           .addClass('collapsible')
           .addClass(args.state or 'autocollapse')
   end

   tbl.css('border-spacing', 0)
   if border == 'subgroup' or border == 'child' or border == 'none' then
       tbl
           .addClass('navbox-subgroup')
           .cssText(args.bodystyle)
           .cssText(args.style)
   else -- regular navobx - bodystyle and style will be applied to the wrapper table
       tbl
           .addClass('navbox-inner')
           .css('background', 'transparent')
           .css('color', 'inherit')
   end
   tbl.cssText(args.innerstyle)

   renderTitleRow(tbl)
   renderAboveRow(tbl)
   for i, listnum in ipairs(listnums) do
       renderListRow(tbl, listnum) 
   end
   renderBelowRow(tbl)

   return tbl

end

function p._navbox(navboxArgs)

   args = navboxArgs

   for k, v in pairs(args) do
       local listnum = ( .. k):match('^list(%d+)$')
       if listnum then table.insert(listnums, tonumber(listnum)) end
   end
   table.sort(listnums)

   border = trim(args.border or args[1] or )

   -- render the main body of the navbox
   local tbl = renderMainTable()

   -- render the appropriate wrapper around the navbox, depending on the border param
   local res = HtmlBuilder.create()
   if border == 'none' then
       res.node(tbl)
   elseif border == 'subgroup' or border == 'child' then
       -- We assume that this navbox is being rendered in a list cell of a parent navbox, and is
       -- therefore inside a div with padding:0em 0.25em. We start with a </div> to avoid the
-- padding being applied, and at the end add a
to balance out the parent's
       res
           .tag('/div', {unclosed = true})
               .done()
           .node(tbl)
           .tag('div', {unclosed = true})
   else
       res
           .tag('table')
               .attr('cellspacing', 0)
               .addClass('navbox')
               .css('border-spacing', 0)
               .cssText(args.bodystyle)
               .cssText(args.style)
               .tag('tr')
                   .tag('td')
                       .css('padding', '2px')
                       .node(tbl)
   end

   renderTrackingCategories(res)

   return tostring(res)

end

function p.navbox(frame)

   if not getArgs then
   	getArgs = require('Module:Arguments').getArgs
   end
   args = getArgs(frame)

   -- Read the arguments in the order they'll be output in, to make references number in the right order.
   local _
   _ = args.title
   _ = args.above
   for i = 1, 20 do
       _ = args["group" .. tostring(i)]
       _ = args["list" .. tostring(i)]
   end    
   _ = args.below

   return p._navbox(args)

end

return p

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